ETF expenses come from assets, so buy when prices fall to lower fund costs. Target end-of-year tax-loss harvesting dumps or summer/early fall dips. Sign up for brokerage email/app alerts on sought-after niches like small-cap value for flash sale entry points. Avoid peaks from January inflows or trendy sectors spiking. Consider swap-based ETFs with indirect holdings having no licensing fees to buy what indexes own at fractional expenses. Index composition shifts can unlock deeper discounts too – time purchases right. Stay patient, buy low!
Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) have become immensely popular over the last decade due to their low costs, tax efficiency, and ease of trading. When it comes to buying ETFs, timing your purchases strategically can lead to significant savings over time. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the different factors to consider when deciding the optimal times to invest in ETFs to maximize your cost savings.
We’ll cover key questions such as:
- How do ETF fees and premiums/discounts affect purchase timing?
- How can you utilize pricing inefficiencies in the ETF arbitrage mechanism to your advantage?
- How do ETF distributions impact tax planning considerations?
- How can you optimize trade execution to minimize impact costs?
Follow along as we analyze historical pricing data, research findings, and expert insights to outline actionable strategies for buying ETFs at the most advantageous times possible. Whether you are a casual investor or seasoned portfolio manager, you are sure to find valuable takeaways to implement into your investment approach.
The Impact of ETF Fees
When purchasing ETF shares, one of the largest recurring costs an investor incurs consists of the embedded expense ratio charged by the ETF provider. This annual fee ranges from 0.03% to 1%, depending on the ETF’s strategy and complexity. While these fees may seem trivial, they can gnaw away substantial growth over years of compounding returns.
Fortunately, increasing competition among ETF providers over the last decade has led to an overall decline in expense ratios across the industry. This trend is especially noticeable among the largest ETFs tracking traditional indexes like the S&P 500, where fees continue to reach new lows.
Just over the last 3 years, the average expense ratio for S&P 500 ETFs has dropped from 0.09% to 0.07%. This may appear negligible on the surface, but saving 0.02% annually on a $100,000 investment equates to an extra $20 per year that can be reinvested into further growth.
When purchasing an ETF tracking a standard index, it pays off to take the time researching options to find the most cost-efficient product currently available. Helpful resources for comparing fees include ETF.com, Morningstar, and your specific broker’s ETF screener.
Strategically Timing Premiums and Discounts
Unlike mutual funds, ETF shares can be traded directly on an exchange similarly to stocks. As a result, ETF prices fluctuate throughout the trading day based on real-time supply and demand. Often times, intraday prices end up deviating slightly from the true value of the ETF’s underlying holdings.
When the market price trades above the net asset value (NAV), the ETF is said to be trading at a premium. Conversely, if the price dips below the NAV, it is then facing a discount. These premiums and discounts typically remain very small, within a range of -0.5% to 0.5% daily. However in times of extreme market volatility or diminished liquidity, these spreads can widen significantly.
For long term investors, temporary price dislocations from NAV are unlikely to have much influence investing strategy. However for frequent ETF traders, monitoring real time premiums and discounts can pinpoint opportune short term entry and exit points.
The best resources for comparing live ETF prices versus NAV stem from the fund issuers themselves, such as Blackrock’s iShares ETFsPremium/Discount Monitor. Third party financial data terminals like Bloomberg and Reuters also provide price to NAV comparisons across thousands of ETFs.
When evaluating premiums and discounts, it’s also constructive to view historical trends over different term lengths. Factors like investor sentiment, trading activity, and index performance can cause extended deviations in certain sectors or international markets.
Capitalizing on Tax Planning Opportunities
A useful aspect of ETFs lies in their ability to optimize tax planning strategies compared to traditional mutual funds. Since shareholders directly trade ETF shares on an exchange, the fund manager does not need to buy/sell holdings to meet daily investor liquidity needs.
As a result, ETFs tend to carry out fewer embedded capital gains distributions than actively managed mutual funds. This allows ETF investors to wield more control over realizing capital gains annually. Carefully monitoring distribution schedules can present strategic timing opportunities around tax considerations.
Most ETF issuers transparently communicate distribution estimates and ex-dividend dates ahead of time through press releases and investor relations pages. For example, Vanguard provides a distribution calendar covering the next 12 months for all their ETF products. Investors can use these projections to make tax-minimizing adjustments accordingly.
If an investor currently holds an ETF position at a loss, they may choose to sell before an upcoming distribution date. This harvests the capital loss to offset gains elsewhere while avoiding an incremental taxable distribution that would further reduce cost basis.
On the other hand, investors seeking regular income may opt to purchase shares right before the recurring distribution. While this distribution immediately gets taxed at one’s income rate, it also reduces the ETF’s NAV by an equal amount. So this can allow buying exposure to the underlying securities at a discount compared to just a few days later.
Monitoring distribution calendars across one’s ETF portfolio and cross-referencing against your particular tax considerations presents another lever to maximize after-tax returns through strategic timing.
Minimizing Impact Costs via Execution Strategies
A final pricing dynamic to consider when investing into ETFs involves the implicit trading costs incurred to establish a position. Since ETFs trade directly on exchanges like stocks, buyers and sellers need to be matched in real-time.
Making large purchases can momentarily push the quoted price higher as you sweep through the current asks on the order book. Conversely, a large sell order can drive prices temporarily lower until meeting sufficient bid interest. This adverse movement in price as you enter or exit a position is known as market impact cost.
The good news is that impact costs have fallen substantially over the years thanks to increased ETF liquidity and exchange competition. Even block orders into the millions face minimal slippage trading popular ETFs like SPY and QQQ during active market hours.
However impact costs do still vary depending on product, date, and time of day. Several best practices exist to contain these trading frictions and optimize order execution when buying or selling ETFs:
Use limit orders instead of market orders whenever feasible
Limit orders allow specifying the maximum price you’re willing pay on purchases (or willing to accept when selling). This caps slippage risk if the market trends against you in the moments after placing the order. Market orders guarantee execution but provide no control over possible downside price movement when entering large block trades.
Scale orders across multiple smaller lots
Breaking one large order into several smaller chunks enables efficiently working impact costs into your average blended price. Scaling also avoids signaling full order size upfront to the market, which can drive prices rapidly against you.
Trade during heightened liquidity periods
Volume and spreads tend to be most favorable mid-morning and mid-afternoon when US equity markets are most active. Avoid early/late sessions or public market holidays where thinner liquidity translates to higher impact costs.
Taking the time to analyze historical liquidity patterns, setting appropriate limit prices, and scaling order quantities enables capturing superior entry/exit levels when trading ETFs. Avoiding just a few basis points of slippage each way on large dollar amounts goes a long way towards enhancing net performance over the long run.
Timing one’s purchases strategically when investing into ETFs opens multiple avenues to realize incremental cost savings over time. Keeping abreast of long term expense ratio trends allows investing into the lowest-cost products for your strategy.
Monitoring real-time premiums/discounts provides useful short term entry points. Modeling upcoming distribution schedules enables better tax planning tactics. And tailoring trade execution around liquidity dynamics minimizes impact costs on large orders.
While ETFs inherently offer low-cost, tax-efficient, and liquid access to markets compared to previous investment vehicles, taking the time to optimize around pricing inefficiencies stands to compound gains further.
Hopefully this guide has provided helpful frameworks to consider integrating into your investment process as you look to maximize savings buying into ETFs. Let the cost benefits of compounding over long periods work into meeting your investment goals sooner!